Dan Swain discusses the contested ambitions and leaderships within our movements. This article was originally published in the Summer 2015 issue of the rs21 magazine.
15 February 2003. London. Anti-war demonstration called by Stop The War Coalition, CND and Muslim Association of Britain. Estimated over two million attended. Don’t Attack Iraq, Freedom for Palestine. Part of international day of action against Bush and Blair’s plans of war. Demonstrations in over 600 cities in 60 countries.
Credit: Angela Stapleford
Throughout the history of socialist movements and ideas, the fundamental divide is between Socialism-from-Above and Socialism-from-Below
So argues Hal Draper’s 1966 pamphlet The Two Souls of Socialism. In it, he distinguishes two different broad trends in the socialist movement. Socialism from above had dominated – and would continue to dominate – the 20th century, in the form of Stalinism in the East and social democracy in the West. Both of these, despite…
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